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In many ways, Jewish law gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar: . Honoring Shabbat kavod Shabbat on Preparation Day Friday includes bathing, having a haircut and cleaning and beautifying the home with flowers, for example. According to Jewish law, Shabbat starts a few minutes before sunset. Candles are lit at this time. It is customary in many communities to light the candles 18 minutes before sundown tosefet Shabbat , though sometimes 36 minutes , and most printed Jewish calendars adhere to this custom. The Kabbalat Shabbat service is a prayer service welcoming the arrival of Shabbat.
Before Friday night dinner, it is customary to sing two songs, one "greeting" two Shabbat angels into the house  and the other praising the woman of the house for all the work she has done over the past week. Singing is traditional at Sabbath meals. According to rabbinic literature , God via the Torah commands Jews to observe refrain from forbidden activity and remember with words, thoughts, and actions Shabbat, and these two actions are symbolized by the customary two Shabbat candles. Candles are lit usually by the woman of the house or else by a man who lives alone. Some families light more candles, sometimes in accordance with the number of children.
Shabbat is a day of celebration as well as prayer. It is also customary to wear nice clothing different from during the week on Shabbat to honor the day. Many Jews attend synagogue services on Shabbat even if they do not do so during the week. Services are held on Shabbat eve Friday night , Shabbat morning Saturday morning , and late Shabbat afternoon Saturday afternoon.
With the exception of Yom Kippur , which is referred to in the Torah Lev as "Shabbat of Shabbatoth", days of public fasting are postponed or advanced if they coincide with Shabbat. Mourners sitting shivah week of mourning subsequent to the death of a spouse or first-degree relative outwardly conduct themselves normally for the duration of the day and are forbidden to display public signs of mourning. Although most Shabbat laws are restrictive, the fourth of the Ten Commandments in Exodus is taken by the Talmud and Maimonides to allude to the positive commandments of Shabbat.
These include:. At the conclusion of Shabbat at nightfall, after the appearance of three stars in the sky, the havdalah blessings are recited over a cup of wine, and with the use of fragrant spices and a candle, usually braided.
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Some communities delay havdalah later into the night in order to prolong Shabbat. There are different customs regarding how much time one should wait after the stars have surfaced until the sabbath technically ends.
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Some people hold by 72 minutes later and other hold longer and shorter than that. Though melakhah is commonly translated as "work" in English , a better definition is "deliberate activity" or "skill and craftmanship". There are 39 categories of prohibited activities melakhoth listed in Mishnah Tractate Shabbat The term shomer Shabbat is used for a person or organization who adheres to Shabbat laws consistently.
The shomer Shabbat is an archetype mentioned in Jewish songs e. There are often disagreements between Orthodox Jews and non-Orthodox Jews as to the practical observance of the Sabbath. The strict observance of the Sabbath is often seen as a benchmark for orthodoxy and indeed has legal bearing on the way a Jew is seen by an orthodox religious court regarding their affiliation to Judaism.
They are not explicitly listed in the Torah; the Mishnah observes that "the laws of Shabbat Different streams of Judaism view the prohibition on work in different ways. Observant Orthodox and Conservative Jews refrain from performing the 39 prohibited categories of activities.
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Each melakhah has derived prohibitions of various kinds. There are, therefore, many more forbidden activities on Shabbat; all are traced back to one of the 39 above principal melakhoth. Given the above, the 39 melakhoth are not so much activities as "categories of activity". For example, while "winnowing" usually refers exclusively to the separation of chaff from grain , and "selecting" refers exclusively to the separation of debris from grain, they refer in the Talmudic sense to any separation of intermixed materials which renders edible that which was inedible.
Thus, filtering undrinkable water to make it drinkable falls under this category, as does picking small bones from fish gefilte fish is one solution to this problem. Orthodox and some Conservative authorities rule that turning electric devices on or off is prohibited as a melakhah ; however, authorities are not in agreement about exactly which one s. One view is that tiny sparks are created in a switch when the circuit is closed, and this would constitute lighting a fire category If the appliance is purposed for light or heat such as an incandescent bulb or electric oven , then the lighting or heating elements may be considered as a type of fire that falls under both lighting a fire category 37 and cooking i.
Turning lights off would be extinguishing a fire category Another view is that a device plugged into an electrical outlet of a wall becomes part of the building, but is nonfunctional while the switch is off; turning it on would then constitute building category 35 and turning it off would be demolishing category Some schools of thought consider the use of electricity to be forbidden only by rabbinic injunction , rather than because it violates one of the original categories.
A common solution to the problem of electricity involves preset timers Shabbat clocks for electric appliances, to turn them on and off automatically, with no human intervention on Shabbat itself. Some Conservative authorities    reject altogether the arguments for prohibiting the use of electricity.
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Some Orthodox also hire a " Shabbos goy ", a Gentile to perform prohibited tasks like operating light switches on Shabbat. Orthodox and many Conservative authorities completely prohibit the use of automobiles on Shabbat as a violation of multiple categories, including lighting a fire, extinguishing a fire, and transferring between domains category However, the Conservative movement's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards permits driving to a synagogue on Shabbat, as an emergency measure, on the grounds that if Jews lost contact with synagogue life they would become lost to the Jewish people.
A halakhically authorized Shabbat mode added to a power-operated mobility scooter may be used on the observance of Shabbat for those with walking limitations, often referred to as a Shabbat scooter. It is intended only for individuals whose limited mobility is dependent on a scooter or automobile consistently throughout the week. Seemingly "forbidden" acts may be performed by modifying technology such that no law is actually violated. In Sabbath mode , a " Sabbath elevator " will stop automatically at every floor, allowing people to step on and off without anyone having to press any buttons, which would normally be needed to work.
Dynamic braking is also disabled if it is normally used, i. However, many rabbinical authorities consider the use of such elevators by those who are otherwise capable as a violation of Shabbat, with such workarounds being for the benefit of the frail and handicapped and not being in the spirit of the day. Many observant Jews avoid the prohibition of carrying by use of an eruv. Others make their keys into a tie bar , part of a belt buckle, or a brooch , because a legitimate article of clothing or jewelry may be worn rather than carried.
An elastic band with clips on both ends, and with keys placed between them as integral links, may be considered a belt. Shabbat lamps have been developed to allow a light in a room to be turned on or off at will while the electricity remains on. A special mechanism blocks out the light when the off position is desired without violating Shabbat.
The Shabbos App is a proposed Android app claimed by its creators to enable Orthodox Jews , and all Jewish Sabbath-observers, to use a smartphone to text on the Jewish Sabbath. It has met with resistance from some authorities. In the event that a human life is in danger pikuach nefesh , a Jew is not only allowed, but required,   to violate any halakhic law that stands in the way of saving that person excluding murder, idolatry, and forbidden sexual acts.
The concept of life being in danger is interpreted broadly: for example, it is mandated that one violate Shabbat to bring a woman in active labor to a hospital. Lesser rabbinic restrictions are often violated under much less urgent circumstances a patient who is ill but not critically so.
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We did everything to save lives, despite Shabbat. People asked: "Why are you here? There are no Jews here," but we are here because the Torah orders us to save lives We are desecrating Shabbat with pride. Various other legal principles closely delineate which activities constitute desecration of Shabbat. Examples of these include the principle of shinui "change" or "deviation" : A violation is not regarded as severe if the prohibited act was performed in a way that would be considered abnormal on a weekday. Examples include writing with one's nondominant hand, according to many rabbinic authorities.
This legal principle operates bedi'avad ex post facto and does not cause a forbidden activity to be permitted barring extenuating circumstances. Generally, adherents of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism believe that the individual Jew determines whether to follow Shabbat prohibitions or not.
For example, some Jews might find activities, such as writing or cooking for leisure , to be enjoyable enhancements to Shabbat and its holiness, and therefore may encourage such practices. Many Reform Jews believe that what constitutes "work" is different for each person, and that only what the person considers "work" is forbidden.
More rabbinically traditional Reform and Reconstructionist Jews believe that these halakhoth in general may be valid, but that it is up to each individual to decide how and when to apply them. A small fraction of Jews in the Progressive Jewish community accept these laws much the same way as Orthodox Jews.
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All Jewish denominations encourage the following activities on Shabbat:. Special Shabbatot are the Shabbatot that precede important Jewish holidays : e. Most Christians do not observe Saturday Sabbath, but instead observe a weekly day of worship on Sunday , which is often called the " Lord's Day ". This observance is celebrated from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset. The principle of weekly Sabbath also exists in other beliefs.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the rest day in Judaism. For Sabbath in the Bible, see Biblical Sabbath.
http://airtec.gr/images/localizar/4469-descargar-programa.php For the Talmudic tractate, see Shabbat Talmud. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Important figures. Religious roles. Culture and education.